Syria's chemical weapons must be destroyed or removed by mid-2014, under an agreement between the US and Russia.
US Secretary of State John Kerry outlined a six-point framework under which Syria must hand over a full list of its stockpile within a week.
If Syria fails to comply, the deal could be enforced by a UN resolution backed by the threat of sanctions or military force.
The US says the Syrian regime killed hundreds in a gas attack last month.
The government of Bashar al-Assad denies the allegations and has accused the rebels of carrying out the attack.
In a joint news conference with Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, Mr Kerry called on the Assad government to live up to its public commitments.
"There can be no room for games. Or anything less than full compliance by the Assad regime," he said.
Mr Kerry and Mr Lavrov said if Syria failed to comply, then a UN resolution would be sought under Chapter VII of the UN charter, which allows for the use of force.
Mr Kerry said inspectors must be on the ground by November, and that the stockpiles should be removed or destroyed by mid-2014.
The six points outlined by Mr Kerry were:
The amount and type of chemical weapons must be agreed and "rapidly" placed under international control
Syria must submit within one week a comprehensive listing of its stockpiles Extraordinary procedures under the Chemical Weapons Convention will allow "expeditious destruction"
Syria must give inspectors "immediate, unfettered access" to all sites All chemical weapons must be destroyed, including the possibility of removing weapons from Syrian territory
UN will provide logistical support, and compliance would be enforced under Chapter VII More than 100,000 people have died since the uprising against President Assad began in 2011. Millions of Syrians have been displaced.